here the flights land amidst water!!!

I think there will be no limits to innovations in civil engineering. Here is one mega innovation where the airport is constructed in the water!

"Need is indeed the mother of all innovations." Japan now has around four airports built of shore to cater to the demands also taking into consideration  the public convenience. 

Have a look at this picture.

This is the Kansai airport located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka Bay in Japan, off the shore of the cities of Sennan and Izumisano.
The kansai airport was the first of this kind. The airport was constructed at some distance from the main land on an artificially constructed man-made island. The need for this offshore airport was mainly attributed to the developments in the Osaka to regain the economic power it had lost to Tokyo in the last few decades. The airport had threats from the typhoons and earthquakes. So the engineers had taken all this into consideration and designed this airport. The airport of size 4km by 2.5km was suggested. The terminal here spanning 1.7km is the longest terminal. 


Terminal Building

Sky Gate Bridge

The sea wall was made of rocks and tetrahedral concrete blocks. The island was made by filling 21,000,000 m3 of landfill obtained by excavating three mountains. The technical problem here was the soil below water was alluvial clay so the sinking of structure would be more. So the engineers decided to use sand piles. These sand would absorb the moisture of the clay. Though it had been filled more than required engineers predicted some sinking to occur. But here the sinking was more than expected leading to extra costs. It sank for 8m. The engineers suggested sliding joints for the aseismic deign. This worked most effectively. It was evident form the results obtained when japan faced the Kobe earthquake on 17 January 1995. The airport remained undamaged. The next test came in 1998 when the airport faced a typhoon with wind speeds of up to 200 km/h. The airport survived without any damage. The only connection of this island to the mainland was the sky gate bridge. It was completed on 1990 with a cost of dollar one billion. This trussed bridge carried the railway in lower level and the motor way in the upper level. 

The airport faced peak time traffic limits problems. so in 2003, the airport authorities suggested the construction of another runway with a terminal (4,000 m long). The second terminal was opened on 2 August 2007. 

Construction time-line:-
1987-construction started
1989-sea wall construction completed. 
1990-a 3km bridge was completed to connect the island to the mainland (rinku town)
1991-terminal building construction commenced
1994-airport opened.
2007-second runway opened. 

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) selected Kansai International Airport in 2001 as one of the 10 civil engineering achievements. 

The techniques applied here with some modifications to prevent the excess sinking was applied in the construction of more airports like this which were New Kitakyushu Airport, Kobe Airport, and ChÅ«bu Centrair International Airport.

Thats how the need created a path for the wonder and this wonder was the inspired and made way for many more such structures! :)


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Hiya :)

hello guys,

i was away from blogging for some time since i was busy with exams. now its over and it's time i spend some time for my blog :)

i have some posts lined up for civil empire. hope it will interest you guys.

i also have another announcement to make. civil empire has conquered another province. :D in simple words i've started another blog :p this blog will henceforth be devoted only for civil engineering related posts.

all the casual posts will henceforth be posted in Civilprincess blogs here... :)
hope you guys enjoy the articles at both the blogs! :D

Update: i've moved all the casual posts to the wordpress blog. and only the civil related posts remain in civil empire! :)


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